Differentiation of adult- cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is dimin- derived hippocampal progenitor cells into olfactory bulb neu- ished by stress buy decadron 0.5mg cheap. Behavioural trait Chapter 8: Neurogenesis in Adult Brain 117 of reactivity to novelty is related to hippocampal neurogenesis purchase decadron 1mg on line. J Neurosci Meth 1984;11: Eur J Neurosci 1999;11:4006–4014 1mg decadron with amex. Kuhn HG buy discount decadron 1mg on line, Dickinson-Anson H, Gage FH, Neurogenesis in the 83. Hippocampal-dependent dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal learning enhances the survival of granule neurons generated in progenitor proliferation. Kindling induced rogenesis by excitatory input and NMDA receptor activation neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat. Increased den- creases the recruitment and/or survival of new high vocal center tate granule cell neurogenesis following amygdala kindling in neurons in adult female canaries. Dentate granule neuro- a transient increase in the number of new neurons in the dentate genesis is increased by seizures and contributes to aberrant net- gyrus of the adult female rat. The postnatal development of rat dentate gyrus and seizures. Blockade of NMDA limbic seizures in rat models of epilepsy. Epilepsia 2000;41: receptors increases cell death and birth in the developing dentate 10–18. Adult treat- the dentate gyrus after transient global ischemia in gerbils. J ment with haloperidol increases dentate granule cell prolifera- Neurosci 1998;18:7768–7778. Chronic fluoxetine treatment increases forebrain ischemia in mice. Chronic antidepressant progenitors in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat. Neuroscience administration increases granule cell genesis in the hippocampus 1997;80:427–436. Serotonergic reinnervation reverses le- gyrus send axonal projections to field CA3 and are surrounded sion-induced decreases in PSA-NCAM labeling and prolifera- by synaptic vesicles. Depletion in serotonin decreases neuro- Brain Res 1988;72:399–406. Adult brain neurogenesis term potentiation ion the hippocampus. Nature 1993;361: and psychiatry: a novel theory of depression. Bronzino JD, Abu-Hasaballah K, Austin-LaFrance RJ, et al. Maturation of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal den- Acta Physiol Scand 1989;137:1–13. Development of a water maze procedure for 2000;47:1043–1049. GRACE Studies into the regulation of the dopamine (DA) system DA NEURON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY and its postsynaptic actions are often stymied by the myriad of actions that this neurotransmitter can produce. Thus, Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that DA has been found to exert actions on the neurons it inner- DA-containing neurons in the midbrain exhibit sponta- vates both directly and via G-protein–coupled receptors. One of the prominent regulators of DA munication via its actions on gap junctions. It has been known for some time that DA neurons are very sensitive to DA can potently modulate its own dynamics, acting via autore- agonists, which inhibit spike firing as well as cause a pre- ceptors on DA nerve terminals and on DA neuron somata. Studies in- In fact, the DA system is under potent dynamic regulation dicate that DA neuron somatodendritic autoreceptors are in the short term by a multitude of feedback systems, and stimulated by an extracellular pool of DA released from the in response to prolonged alterations is subject to powerful dendrites of neighboring DA neurons rather than exclu- homeostatic mechanisms that can compensate for dramatic sively by autoinhibition back onto the releasing neuron.
However buy decadron 1 mg without a prescription, the lack of consistent evidence supportive 796 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress of pathophysiologic progression in schizophrenia has been ventional antipsychotics and placebo decadron 0.5mg with amex. A metaanalysis of ran- a weakness of this hypothesis (430) cheap decadron 1mg with amex. Developing novel associates (432) found that acute or chronic administration antipsychotic drugs: strategies and goals discount 0.5mg decadron with mastercard. Curr Opin CPNS Invest of clozapine increased basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF- Drugs 2000;2:25–39. Therapeutic levels protective activity of clozapine. It has been proposed that of neuroleptics occupy D2 receptors, clozapine occupies D4. JClin or NT-3 might be useful for treating temporally protracted Psychiatry 1989;50:322–328. New drugs for the treatment of schizo- tions to administration of these factors are transplantation phrenic patients. The use of atypical of neurotrophic factor-producing cells, direct transfection antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia. Br JClin of neurotrophic factor gene, and development of com- Pharmacol 1999;47:13–22. From chlorpromazine to olanzapine: meostasis and/or the influence their signal transduction a brief history of antipsychotics. Clozapine: guidelines for trophic factors suggests novel and innovative pharmacother- clinical management. Clozapine for the treat- ment-resistant schizophrenic. Understanding the mechanism of action of atypi- CONCLUSION cal antipsychotic drugs: a review of compounds in use and devel- opment. The therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of schiz- 13. Mechanisms of typical and atypical antipsychotic drug action in relation to dopamine and ophrenia has become rich and varied in the half century NMDA receptor hypofunction hypotheses of schizophrenia. Dissimilar dosing with high- to control many of the symptoms of the disorder and restore potency and low-potency neuroleptics. Positron emission drug discovery of new and novel agents and the determina- tomographic analysis of central D1 and D2 dopamine receptor tion of their optimal use in conjunction with psychosocial occupancy in patients treated with classical neuroleptics and and adjunctive therapies; however, there is reason to be opti- clozapine. Arch Gen Psy- mistic that future progress will be relatively swift. High levels of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy with low-dose haloperidol treatment: a PET study. Central D2-dopamine ACKNOWLEDGMENTS receptor occupancy in relation to antipsychotic drug effects: a double-blind PET study of schizophrenic patients. Goff received research support from Cortex Pharma- try 1993;33:227–235. In addition, he has received honoraria and/ mine D2occupancy, clinical response, and side effects: a double- blind PET study of first-episode schizophrenia. Am JPsychiatry or served on an advisory board for Eli Lilly, Janssen, and 2000;157:514–520. D2 and 5-HT2 receptor effects of number of companies including: Janssen, Lilly, Astra Ze- antipsychotics: bridging basic and clinical findings using PET. Non-equipotent doses partly explain differ- ences among antipsychotics—implications of PET studies. Serotonergic basis of antipsychotic drug effects in schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotic drugs as a first-line treat- 22. D2 dopamine ment of schizophrenia: a rationale and hypothesis.
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