B. Gancka. Hood College.
I am also indebted to Sarah Francis (Newcastle) for her assistance with the technical preparation of the copy buy robaxin 500mg online. Finally discount robaxin 500 mg without prescription, I owe a very special word of thanks to my wife Arachne purchase robaxin 500mg without a prescription, who translated two of the chapters for this volume and who has provided in- valuable support and encouragement throughout all my academic work purchase 500mg robaxin fast delivery. Note on translations All translations of Greek and Latin texts are my own, except in those cases where I have used the following: the translations of the Hippocratic writings by W. Potter (quoted in the introduction and throughout part one), published by Harvard University Press in the Loeb Classical Library as Hippocrates, volumes 2/148 (1923), 4/ 150 (1931), 5/472 (1988) and 6/473 (1988); the translation of Theophrastus’ On the Causes of Plants by B. Link (quoted in chapter 2), published by Harvard University Press in the Loeb Classical Library as Theophrastus, De causis plantarum, volumes 1/471 (1976) and 3/475 (1990); the translation of Aristotle’s History of Animals, Book 10, by D. Walzer (quoted in chapter 2), published by Oxford University Press in 1944 and reprinted by Hackett in 1985; the translation of Caelius Aurelianus’ On Acute Affections by I. Drabkin (quoted in chapter 4), published by the University of Chicago Press in 1950; and the translation of Plato’s Republic by G. Hippocratic texts are normally cited by reference to the volume and page numbers of the Littre edition (L. Works of Galen are referred to according to the volume and page numbers of the edition by Kuhn¨ (K. Over the last three decades, the subject has gained broad appeal, not only among scholars and students of Greek and Roman antiquity but also in other disciplines such as the history of medicine and science, the history of philosophy and ideas, (bio-)archaeology and environmental history, and the study of the linguistic, literary, rhetorical and cultural aspects of intellectual ‘discourse’. The popularity of the subject even extends beyond the conﬁnes of academic communities, and ancient medicine has proved to be an effective tool in the promotion of the public understanding of medicine and its history. The reasons for these changes are varied and complex, and to do justice to all would require a much fuller discussion than I can offer here. Evidently, ancient medicine possesses remarkable ﬂex- ibility in attracting interest from a large variety of people approaching the ﬁeld from a broad range of disciplines, directions and backgrounds, for a number of different reasons and with a wide variety of expectations. The purpose of publishing these papers in the present form is to make them more easily accessible to this growing audience. Until about thirty years ago it was customary for Greek medicine to 1 See also Nutton (2002). Like Greek literature, philosophy, art, architecture and democracy, ancient medicine was seen as one of those uniquely Greek con- tributions to the development of European culture and humanity. This ‘appropriating’ claim was illustrated with such powerful examples as the sharp clinical observations recorded in the case histories of the Hip- pocratic Epidemics, the deﬁant rejection of supernatural explanations of disease by the author of On the Sacred Disease, the search for natural and empirically observable causes by the author of On Ancient Medicine, and of course the high ethical standards advocated by the Hippocratic Oath. These and other documents constituted the medical part of the Greek miracle, and they served very well as examples for classicists to cite when it came to promoting the study of Greek and Roman culture and demonstrating its relevance to the modern world. They also provided the cachet of a re- spectable historical tradition with which Western medicine believed it could identify and, perhaps legitimately, claim to stand in a special relationship of continuity, while at the same time taking pride in having emancipated itself from this tradition through the spectacular achievements of medical science in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Yet, curiously, these examples and the underlying attitude and motivation for referring to them somehow also seem to have posed an obstacle to a closer study of the actual evidence. For while, in many other areas of classical studies, the belief in this ‘Greek miracle’ had long been eroded, if not abandoned, the perception of Greek and Roman medicine as the paradigm of rationality and the ancestor of contemporary biomedical science and practice was remarkably persistent. It was mainly the territory of medical historians, often employed in (or retired from) medical faculties or other areas of the medical profession, and had 2 Two exceptions that should be mentioned here are Kudlien (1967a), which is a relatively early examination of some of the more ‘irrational’ elements in Greek medicine, and of course Dodds (1951), although the latter does not deal speciﬁcally with medicine. Of course, there were exceptions on either side, and the names of such eminent historians of medicine as Karl Sudhoff, Henry Sigerist and Owsei Temkin, who devoted much attention to anti- quity, could be paralleled by classicists such as Hermann Diels, Ludwig Edelstein, Karl Deichgraber and Hans Diller. But the reason why the latter¨ are well known to most classical scholars is that they published also on mainstream, canonical classical subjects such as Aristophanes, Sophocles, the Presocratics, Plato, Aristotle and Posidonius. And at any rate (with the exception of Edelstein), their approach to ancient medicine had always been rather strictly philological, focusing on the texts of the great masters such as Hippocrates and Galen, but paying little attention to the social, cultural, economic, institutional, geographical and religious environment in which medical writing took place. For the rest, the subject was largely neglected: the majority of classicists considered it too medical and too technical, while the fact that the main texts were in Latin and Greek (and often in a quite technical, austere kind of Latin and Greek at that) did not help to secure the subject a prominent place in the attention of medical historians or members of the medical profession at large. Nothing could be further from my intention than to dismiss the con- tribution of members of the medical profession to the study of ancient medicine – indeed, I myself have often beneﬁted from the collaboration and dialogue with medically trained colleagues when studying ancient Greek medical texts. Still, it is fair to say that, especially in the ﬁrst half of the twen- tieth century, the interest taken by medical people in Greek and Roman medicine was often motivated, apart from antiquarian intellectual curiosity, by what we could call a positivist, or presentist, attitude.
Patients were followed up for one year to judge syndrome was also found at both groups robaxin 500 mg fast delivery. All groups were given a home exercise programme 3 times fore each treatment and one month proven robaxin 500mg, after completion of therapy buy generic robaxin 500 mg on-line. Hayani Objectives: To study the therapeutic effect of combining Mul- Al-nisr1 ligan technique with neck muscle training fortreatment of nerve 1Hospital General Universitario de Castellón purchase 500 mg robaxin, Physical Medicine root type of cervical spondylosis and observe its role in prevent- and Rehabilitation, Castellón, Spain ing recurrence. Methods: Eighty-six patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy were randomly divided into a control and Introduction/Background: Several treatments are available to treat an experimental group. Material and Methods: Chinese medical massage therapy as a supplement and the Mulli- From 14 Feb, 2002 and 30 Sep, 2015, a prospective longitudinal gan manipulation and neck muscle strength training are adopted in descriptive study was performed on treatment with a Piezoelectric the experimental group. This study aimed activities that initially existed in 98 (100%), persisted in 2 (2. Mean fux density, number of pulses applied, and improve- in such patients, as well as assessing the extent of such relations. Introduction/Background: Alteration in head posture and neck muscles activation has been observed among neck pain patients due to variation of motor dysfunction. Motor dysfunction can fur- 332 ther lead to changes in thoracic and rib cage mechanics. Milet1 40 subjects (20 healthy and 20 neck pain subjects) were recruited based on the selected criteria as set by the study protocol. Finally, the chest expansion was measured us- Introduction/Background: Epicondylitis is a common, painful ing measuring tape. Results: The results of the study showed a signifcant pathophysiologic process is a tendinosis that can occur by micro- difference (p<0. It is present in 1% to 3% of the general tern, chest expansion between healthy and neck pain groups. Different rehabilitation techniques and addition, there is also an alteration of breathing pattern among treatments are being used, that can include: rest, physiotherapy, neck pain patients. Conclusion: The study proposed that ment is recommended when functional impotence and pain persist, neck pain patients may predispose to alteration in respiratory in- despite all the other treatments already mentioned. This study recommends that respiratory exercise could Methods: Clinical case of male patient diagnosed with epicondyli- be included as part of rehabilitation measures among neck pain tis, refractory to usual rehabilitation treatments. Sixteen had pain involving single site while in 15 cases has completed two sessions of fenestration, ranking a score of 85 more than 2 sites were involved, with low back being the most at the Mayo Elbow Score. The First episode of pain occurred during 5–15 for treating epicondylitis but most of them still have little scien- years of service in (36. Most of them agreed (110) that rest is ultrasound-guided fenestration, with or without chemodenervation, needed to get better, and neglecting problems of this kind can cause should be considered as a therapeutic approach. Although its spontaneous evolution edge of the results of the clinical assessment. Results: Impingement is often favorable, it can be much longer and unusual among dia- manoeuvres (Hawkins, Neer and Yocum) seem sensitive enough, betic patients. Jobe’s manoeuvre evoking a supraspinatus lesion by the sessing the outcome of the treatment then comparing the results be- demonstration of weakness and/or pain seems to have the same per- tween the two populations. Material and Methods: We carried out formance profle with a sensitivity of 72% and a specifcity of 40%. Results: The me- cal examination and ultrasound of the shoulder, as well as an ef- dian age of P1 was 55 years and 57 years for P2. We noted a statistically signifcant improvement in pain, joint mobility in all sectors and the modifed Constant score after treatment (p<0. This improvement was 334 signifcantly better in P2 than P1 especially in the internal rotation. This care should be early and regular with a balance in the diabetic in order to ensure a better response of the treatment. They lead to pain, Masiero1 discomfort, loss of work hours and poor quality of life.
Symptoms include increasing daily headache buy generic robaxin 500mg line, fluc- Diabetes also occurs due to damage to the pan- tuating drowsiness or confusion order robaxin 500 mg with amex, and mild weakness creas purchase 500mg robaxin overnight delivery. Early diagnosis and treatment before symp- drilling through the skull to drain the excess blood cheap robaxin 500mg otc. Hemochromatosis is inherited in an auto- hematopoiesis The production of all types of somal recessive manner. Also known as bronze dia- blood cells including formation, development, and betes and hereditary hemochromatosis. Prenatally, hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sack, then in the hemodialysis See dialysis. In the normal situation, hematopoiesis in adults occurs in the hemoglobin The oxygen-carrying protein pig- bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. All types of ment in the blood, specifically in the red blood blood cells are derived from primitive cells (stem cells. Hb is usually measured as cells) that are pluripotent (they have the potential to total Hb expressed as the amount of Hb in grams develop into all types of blood cells). The normal ranges are approximately 14 to 17 gm/dl for adult hematuria See blood in the urine. Values returned on Hb tests may vary slightly between lab- hematuria, gross Blood in the urine that can be oratories. Hematuria may or may not be accompanied by pain, but it is always abnormal hemoglobin A Normal adult hemoglobin, the and should be further investigated. The left concentration: The higher the glucose concentra- hemidiaphragm is more often subject to rupture tion in blood, the higher the level of HbA1c. See also diaphragm; of HbA1c are not influenced by daily fluctuations in diaphragmatic hernia. Measurement of HbA1c is a useful indicator of how well the blood glucose level has been controlled in hemiplegia Paralysis on one side of the body. Also known as glycosy- hemizygous Having only a single copy of a gene lated or glucosylated hemoglobin. All the genes on the single X chromosome in the male are hemoglobin E Normal embryonic hemoglobin, hemizygous. The E stands for embryonic and also for hemochromatosis An inherited disorder char- epsilon, a chain that is unique to embryonic hemo- acterized by abnormally high absorption of iron by globin. Common early symptoms include main type of hemoglobin found in the fetus and abdominal pain, weakness, lethargy, and weight newborn baby. It differs Salmonella, or it may be related to other conditions from hemoglobin A only by a single amino acid sub- and infections. Hemophagocytic conditions, such as bleeding and paroxysmal noc- lymphohistiocytosis can be an inherited condition, turnal hemoglobinuria. Treatment involves occurs to a minor degree normally as red blood chemotherapy and in some cases bone-marrow cells age. There hemolytic anemia Anemia due to the destruc- are two types of hemophilia: hemophilia A and tion, rather than underproduction, of red blood hemophilia B. The disease is inher- hemolytic disease of the newborn Abnormal ited as an X-linked trait, so males are affected and breakup of red blood cells in a fetus or newborn. Hemophilia A has affected the Russian royal house Symptoms can be mild or severe and may include and the descendants of Queen Victoria. There is renewed hemolytic jaundice, congenital See spherocy- bleeding after the initial bleeding has stopped. Also called Christmas disease young children, but the condition can also occur in (named for the first patient with the disease to be adults. Hemoptysis the blood vessels of the kidneys, which can lead to occurs when tiny blood vessels that line the lung air- kidney failure. Low- can be internal, and therefore invisible, or external, weight heparin may be superior to regular (unfrac- and therefore visible on the body. For example, tionated) heparin in cases of unstable angina and bleeding into the spleen or liver is internal hemor- other cardiac diseases.
The presence of a spe- ciﬁc antibody to a coagulation factor is termed an acquired inhibitor generic 500 mg robaxin mastercard. Patients with acquired inhibitors are typically older adults (median age 60) with pregnancy or post-partum states being less common 500 mg robaxin amex. The most common underlying dis- eases are autoimmune diseases 500 mg robaxin for sale, malignancies (lymphoma order robaxin 500mg without a prescription, prostate cancer), and derma- tologic diseases. Developing the coagulation disorder later in life is more suggestive of an acquired inhibitor if there is no antecedent history of coagulopa- thy. A tobacco history and laboratory evidence of chronic illness (anemia, hypoalbuminemia) in this scenario raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy. It has a prevalence in the general population of 1:5000 in contrast to Hemophilia B that has a prevalence of 1:30,000. The disease phe- notype correlates with the amount of residual Factor activity and can be classiﬁed as se- vere (<1% activity), moderate (1–5% activity) or mild (6–30% activity). Hemophiliacs have a normal bleeding time, platelet count, thrombin time and prothrombin time. This and the presence of ascites raise the possibility of liver disease and cirrhosis. It is estimated in 2006 that >80% of hemophilia patients >20 years old are infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C is the major cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of death in patients exposed to older factor concentrates. Patients develop cirrhosis and the complications including as- cites and variceal bleeding. Hepatitis B was not transmitted in signiﬁcant numbers to patients with hemophilia. Diverticular dis- ease or peptic ulcer disease would not explain the prolonged prothrombin time. In contrast, these tests should not ﬂuctuate as much in patients with severe liver disease. This step may be not necessary however in those individ- uals with hemoglobin greater than 20 g/dL. Once absolute erythrocytosis has been deter- mined by measurement of red cell mass and plasma volume, the cause of erythrocytosis must be determined. If there is not an obvious cause of the erythrocytosis, an erythropoi- etin level should be checked. An elevated erythropoietin level suggests hypoxia or auton- omous production of erythropoietin as the cause of erythrocytosis. When symptoms are present, the most common complaints are related to hyperviscosity of the blood and include vertigo, headache, tinnitus, and transient ischemic attacks. Molluscum contagiosum gency room with a transient ischemic attack characterized B. She calls your ofﬁce 2 weeks later slightly distressed man with disheveled appearance. Cardiac examination reveals an early diastolic murmur over the left 3d intercostal space. Write her a prescription for oseltamivir and call her right hand and on the fourth ﬁnger of his left hand that are in 24 h to ensure improvement. A 56-year-old man with a history of hypertension cells coated with coccobacillary organisms. Which of the and cigarette smoking is admitted to the intensive care following therapies is indicated? Minority women aged 13–19 from the southeastern mens is recommended as ﬁrst-line treatment for her United States account for a growing proportion of malarial infection? Which of the following is true years ago and is maintained on prednisone, 5 mg, and cy- regarding enteroviruses as a cause of aseptic meningitis?