By K. Ismael. University of Maryland Eastern Shore.
That which has been transferred from the hot body to the cold body is called heat discount carafate 1000 mg. In fact purchase carafate 1000mg free shipping, heat can be deﬁned as energy being transferred from a hotter body to a colder body purchase carafate 1000mg line. We will describe the motion of atoms and molecules due to thermal energy and then discuss diﬀusion in connection with the functioning of cells and the respiratory system purchase 1000 mg carafate. They move in random directions and collide frequently with one another and with the walls of the container. In addition to moving linearly, gas molecules vibrate and rotate, again in random directions. The atoms are free only to vibrate and do so, again randomly, about some average posi- tion to which they are locked. Here the molecules can vibrate, but they also have some freedom to move and to rotate. Because of their motion, the moving particles in a material possess kinetic energy. This energy of motion inside materials is called internal energy, and the motion itself is called thermal motion. What we have so far qualitatively called the hotness of a body is a measure of the internal energy; that is, in hot- ter bodies, the random motion of atoms and molecules is faster than in colder bodies. The physical sensation of hotness is the eﬀect of this random atomic and molecular motion on the sensory mechanism. Using these concepts, it is possible to derive the equations that describe the behavior of matter as a function of temperature. The theory considers a gas made of small particles (atoms or molecules) which are in continuous random motion. Each particle travels in a straight line until it collides with another particle or with the walls of the container. The colliding particles exchange energy not only among themselves but also with the wall of the container (Fig. For example, if initially the walls of the container are hotter than the gas, the particles colliding with the wall on the average pick up energy from the vibrating molecules in the wall. As a result of the wall collisions, the gas is heated until it is as hot as the walls. This is an equilibrium situation in which, on the average, as much energy is delivered to the wall by the gas particles as is picked up from it. The speed and corresponding kinetic energy of the individual particles in a gas vary over a wide range. Still it is possible to compute an average kinetic energy for the particles by adding the kinetic energy of all the individual parti- cles in the container and dividing by the total number of particles (for details, see [11-7]). Many of the properties of a gas can be simply derived by assum- ing that each particle has this same average energy. The internal energy in an ideal gas is in the form of kinetic energy,1 and 1 2 therefore the average kinetic energy mv is proportional to the tem- 2 av perature. The proportionality can be changed to an equality by multiplying the temperature T by a suitable constant which relates the temperature to the internal energy. The constant is designated by the symbol k, which is called 1The simple theory neglects the vibrational and rotational energy of the molecules. For historical reasons, Boltzmann constant has been so 3 deﬁned that it has to be multiplied by a factor of to relate temperature to the 2 average kinetic energy of a molecule; thus, 1 2 3 mv kT (9. The size of the degree division on the absolute scale is equal to the Celsius, or centigrade, degree, but the absolute scale is transposed so that 0◦C 273. Since our calculations are carried only to three signiﬁcant ﬁg- ures, we will use simply 0◦C 273◦K. The pressure exerted by a gas on the walls of its container is due to the numerous collisions of the gas molecules with the container.
Milk served hot with honey adds the nutritive value of honey buy generic carafate 1000 mg online, displacing the need for other unnatural sweets buy 1000mg carafate otc. It does not have to be added to the milk; it can simply be included with the meal somewhere cheap 1000 mg carafate amex. Lemon juice or vinegar can be put in certain foods but the most reliable way to get it into the diet is to put 1 tablespoon into the water glass along with a teaspoon of honey carafate 1000 mg visa. This gives the water a “sweet and sour” flavor, enough to make it interesting throughout the meal. Bring these two items to your loved one at the “home” if it cannot be provided regularly and reliably. The lemon and honey habit, alone, can add years (healthier years) to an elderly person. The extra acid taken with lunch and supper (the stomach has its own best supply of acid in the morning, for breakfast) improves overall digestion and helps dissolve the calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, and other minerals in the food so they can be absorbed. The habit of using vinegar and honey in water as a beverage was made famous by Dr. We must use only white distilled vinegar, even though it lacks potassium, aroma and popularity. Get orange blossom, linden blossom, buckwheat, wildflower, and sage honey, besides clover blossom. To detoxify the ergot, you simply add vitamin C to the honey as soon as it arrives from the supermarket. If your elderly loved one has not tolerated milk in years, start with the vinegar and honey beverage, or lemon and honey, and be patient until that is accepted. It must be heated until it bubbles up and almost goes over the container for ten seconds. Milk that is marketed in paper containers that need no re- frigeration has been sterilized; it is safe. Once the body, even an aged body, finds a nutritious food that does not cause troubles of its own, it asks for more. Your loved one will accept it and drink it without forceful coaxing, if there is no problem with it. As long as your loved one tries to avoid drinking it, your challenge is to find the problem and solve it. When your loved one is drinking three cups of milk (or buttermilk or whey) a day and three cups of water, there will be no room (nor request) for the usual coffee and tea and other bad beverages. Common problems that plague the aged are brain problems, incontinence, bad digestion, diabetes, tremor, weakness, feeling cold, sensitivity to noise, losing the sense of taste and smell, hearing loss, insomnia, kidney and heart failure. It is like having a pocket calcu- lator with rundown batteries: it will give you wrong answers (without telling you they are wrong). Not enough oxygen to the brain is the main cause of memory loss, inability to find the right words, getting words mixed up and not being able to speak in sentences. You can prove this by providing oxygen from a tank; modern equipment is very easy to use and inexpensive. If your loved one responds well to a few hours of oxygen, you have proof of the problem. Give it early in the morning, upon rising, as soon as the feet are set on the floor. Keep it at the bedside, use small capsules or tablets and combine this chore with water drinking. Even the niacin-flush, which reddens the face and neck is welcomed since it gives a sensation of warmth. The flush is intensified by giving hot liquids or acids (even vitamin C) to drink. Do not use a prescription variety, since they are polluted with heavy metals; use only the brand in Sources, or a brand that you have tested pure.