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High-school football injuries: effects of a post-halftime warm-up and stretching routine order mycelex-g 100mg otc. Incidence of soccer injuries and their relation to training and team success buy discount mycelex-g 100mg on line. Musculoskeletal profile and incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in lightweight women rowers mycelex-g 100mg. Injuries to runners: a study of entrants to a 10 order mycelex-g 100mg with visa,000 meter race. Relative risks for running and exercise injuries: studies in three populations. Predicting lower-extremity injuries among habitual runners. The Ontario cohort study of running-related injuries. A survey of running injuries in 1505 competitive and recreational runners. Prevention of running injuries by warm-up, cool-down, and stretching exercises. A randomized trial of pre-exercise stretching for prevention of lower-limb injury. Effects of ankle dorsiflexion range and pre-exercise calf muscle stretching on injury risk in army recruits. Increasing hamstring flexibility decreases lower extremity overuse injuries in military basic trainees. A flexibility intervention to reduce the incidence and severity of joint injuries among municipal firefighters. Thermal effects on skeletal muscle tensile behavior. Functional properties of knee ligaments and alterations induced by immobilization. Biomechanial comparison of stimulated and nonstimulated skeletal muscle pulled to failure. Injury to muscle fibres after single stretches of passive and maximally stimulated muscles in mice. Positioning of actin filaments and tension generation in skinned muscle fibres released after stretch beyond overlap of the actin and myosin filaments. Intersarcomere dynamics during fixed-end tetanic contractions of frog muscle fibers. The effect of tension of non-uniform distribution of length changes applied to frog muscle fibres. The role of fatigue in susceptibility to acute muscle strain injury. Contraction-induced injury to single fiber segments from fast and slow muscles of rats by single stretches. The positional stability of thick filaments in activated skeletal muscle depends on sarcomere length: evidence for the role of titin filaments. Redistribution of sarcomere length during isometric contraction of frog muscle fibres and its relation to tension creep. Active physical training for long-standing adductor-related groin pain. JOHN M RYAN Introduction The decision of whether or not an individual should play sport when it is known that he or she has only one kidney or he has only one testis is a challenging decision for which there may be no single correct or incorrect answer. The decision must be based on appropriate information and evidence. Furthermore the individual must understand the consequences and demonstrate an understanding of the risks involved. An individual cannot be expected to make a decision without appropriate advice. Physicians involved in a sport need to understand the consequences as well as explain them in a structured manner which the athlete and others understand. This advice must be based on clear evidence from which any risk should be determinable if possible.
The disease-causing form of the prion Familial Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (fCJD) protein has the same amino acid composition but is folded into a different confor- arises from an inherited mutation and has an mation that aggregates into multimeric protein complexes resistant to proteolytic autosomal dominant pedigree generic mycelex-g 100mg without prescription. The normal conformation of the prion protein has been des- presents in the fourth decade of life order 100 mg mycelex-g overnight delivery. The c Sc ignated PrP and the disease-causing form PrP (sc for the prion disease scrapies in mutation lowers the activation energy for Sc c Sc sheep) generic mycelex-g 100mg fast delivery. Although PrP and PrP have the same amino acid composition purchase mycelex-g 100mg fast delivery, the PrP refolding and the prion proteins fold into the Sc conformer is substantially enriched in -sheet structure compared with the normal PrP conformation more readily. It is esti- c mated that the rate of generating prion dis- PrP conformer, which has little or no -sheet structure and is approximately 40% c -helix. This difference favors the aggregation of PrPSc into multimeric complexes. Lowering These two conformations presumably have similar energy levels. Fortunately, spon- taneous refolding of PrP proteins into the PrPSc conformation is prevented by a large of the activation energy for refolding by mutation presumably decreases this time to activation energy barrier that makes this conversion extremely slow. Thus, very few the observed 30- to 40-year prodromal Sc molecules of PrP are normally formed during a lifetime. Sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob disease may arise from somatic cell mutation or rare spontaneous refoldings that initiate a cas- cade of refolding into the PrPSc conformation. The sporadic form of the disease accounts for 85% of all cases of CJD. The prion proteins have two domains, an N- terminal region that binds four Cu2 per chain, and a C-terminal region. In PrPc, the C-terminal regions contain three substantial helices and two 3-residue strands joined by two to three hydrogen bonds (approximately 40% a-helix and almost no -sheet structure). In PrPsc, the C-terminal region is folded into an extensive -sheet. The overall structure is approximately 40 to 50% -sheet, 20 to 30% -helices. CHAPTER 7 / STRUCTURE–FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS IN PROTEINS 113 Sc The infectious disease occurs with the ingestion of PrP dimers in which the Sc prion protein is already folded into the high structure. These PrP proteins are thought to act as a template to lower the activation energy barrier for the conforma- Sc tional change, causing native proteins to refold into the PrP conformation much more rapidly (much like the role of chaperonins). The refolding initiates a cascade Sc as each new PrP formed acts as a template for the refolding of other molecules. As Sc the number of PrP molecules increase in the cell, they aggregate into a multimeric assembly that is resistant to proteolytic digestion. Deadly conformations-protein misfolding in prion diseases. Advanced glycation end products: a nephrologist’s per- spective. Which of the following characterize -helix regions of proteins? Which of the following is a characteristic of globular proteins? A protein has one transmembrane domain composed entirely of -helical secondary structure. Which of the following amino acids would you expect to find in the transmembrane domain? Autopsies of patients with Alzheimer’s disease show protein aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in various regions of the brain. These plaques exhibit the characteristic staining of amyloid. Which of the following struc- tural features is the most likely characteristic of at least one protein in these plaques? While studying a novel pathway in a remote species of bacteria, you discover a new globular protein that phosphorylates a sub- strate, using ATP as the phosphate donor.
He made a provisional diagnosis of excessive secretion of cortisol secondary to an medulla buy 100mg mycelex-g free shipping. These actions provide the liver buy 100 mg mycelex-g free shipping, for excess secretion of ACTH (Cushing’s “disease”) or by a primary increase of cortisol pro- example order 100mg mycelex-g mastercard, with increased levels of substrate duction by an adrenocortical tumor (Cushing’s syndrome) order 100mg mycelex-g otc. Although in Otto suggested that resting, fasting plasma cortisol and ACTH levels be measured at normal individuals most of the glucose gen- 8:00 the next morning. Solemia’s morning plasma ACTH erated through this mechanism is oxidized, and cortisol levels were both significantly above the reference range. Therefore, Otto blood glucose levels rise in the process. Solemia probably had a tumor that was producing ACTH addition, the catecholamines suppress insulin autonomously (i. The high secretion to ensure that fuels will continue to plasma levels of ACTH were stimulating the adrenal cortex to produce excessive flow in the direction of utilization rather than amounts of cortisol. Additional laboratory and imaging studies indicated that the hyper- storage under these circumstances. Hence, cortisolemia was caused by a benign ACTH-secreting adenoma of the anterior pituitary blood glucose levels may rise in patients who gland (Cushing’s “disease”). Some Nonmetabolic Physiologic Actions of Glucocorticoids On electrolyte and water balance: Increase sodium and water retention (1/3,000 the potency of aldosterone) Increase renal glomerular filtration rate to maintain water excretion rate Suppress arginine vasopressin (ADH) release from posterior pituitary (? Glucocorticoids stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue and the release of amino acids from muscle protein. In liver, glu- cocorticoids stimulate gluconeogenesis and the synthesis of glycogen. The breakdown of liver glycogen is stimulated by epinephrine. CHAPTER 43 / ACTIONS OF HORMONES THAT REGULATE FUEL METABOLISM 795 glucose uptake by certain tissues), but taken together they promote survival in times Otto was now able to explain the of stress. For example, Otto knew the metabolic explana- the degradation of these macromolecules. In response to chronic stress, GCs act tion for the patient’s hyperglycemia. Some of to make fuels available, so that when the acute alarm sounds and epinephrine is Mr. Solemia’s muscle wasting and weakness released, the organism can fight or flee. When GCs are elevated, glucose uptake were caused by the catabolic effect of hyper- by the cells of many tissues is inhibited, lipolysis occurs in peripheral adipose cortisolemia on protein stores, such as those tissue, and proteolysis occurs in skin, lymphoid cells, and muscle. The fatty acids in skeletal muscle, to provide amino acids as that are released are oxidized by the liver for energy, and the glycerol and amino precursors for gluconeogenesis. This cata- acids serve in the liver as substrates for the production of glucose, which is con- bolic action also resulted in the degradation verted to glycogen and stored. The alarm signal of epinephrine stimulates liver of elastin, a major supportive protein of the glycogen breakdown, making glucose available as fuel to combat the acute skin, as well as an increased fragility of the stress. These changes resulted in the easy bruisability and the torn subcutaneous tis- to intracellular receptors, interaction of the steroid-receptor complex with GC sues of the lower abdomen, which resulted response elements on DNA, transcription of genes, and synthesis of specific pro- in red striae or stripes. The plethora (red- teins (see Chapter 16, section III. In some cases, the specific proteins respon- ness) of Mr. Solemia’s facial skin was also sible for the GC effect are known (e. In other cases, the proteins well as by a cortisol-induced increase in the responsible for the GC effect have not yet been identified. BIOCHEMISTRY If Corti Solemia’s problem had The secretory products of the thyroid acinar cells are tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, been caused by a neoplasm of the T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The basic adrenal cortex, what would his lev- steps in the synthesis of T3 and T4 in these cells involve the transport or trapping of els of blood ACTH and cortisol have been?