By M. Finley. University of Orlando. 2018.
He gave most Rowley Bristow Orthopedic devoted and distinguished service to the army buy 75 mg venlor with visa, Hospital cheap venlor 75 mg with mastercard, a ﬁtting tribute to the life and work of organizing the orthopedic sections of the military its ﬁrst surgeon-in-chief purchase 75 mg venlor with visa. In 1946 generic venlor 75 mg mastercard, the French Government appointed was conducted in and from 102 Harley Street, a him Chevalier of the Legion of Honour and house that contained some beautiful examples of awarded him a Croix de Guerre with palm. Number 102 was the scene steady output of contributions to surgical litera- of bounteous hospitality, dispensed with taste and ture. Two subjects held his interest throughout— 40 Who’s Who in Orthopedics disabilities of the knee joint, and injuries of Morayshire; an Alexander Brodie of Brodie was peripheral nerves. His Robert Jones Memorial Lord of Session in 1649 and his Jacobite descen- Lecture on the latter topic was a masterly exposi- dant, also named Alexander, migrated to London tion of the subject. As a teacher of undergraduates in the earlier part of the eighteenth century. Two of the to the heart of his subject and picking on the grandchildren, Lord Denman and Sir Benjamin essentials with clarity and emphasis. His out- Brodie, rose to eminence in law and medicine, patient clinics at St. Thomas’ were stimulating, one became Lord Chief Justice and the other memorable, and crowded. Thomas’ students will still recall such apho- tainly received a thorough grounding in the clas- risms as “We treat patients, not disease. Part of parental tutoring Rowley Bristow married in 1910, Florence, was the inculcation of industrious habits; the son only daughter of James White, LLD, and they had who became surgeon of St. But it was not all work, there was play-acting, in which young Denman joined, and the pastimes of the countryside. In that year, Napoleon had an army at Boulogne watching out for a favorable moment for the invasion of Britain. There was considerable alarm in England, of which the still standing defensive Martello Towers of the south coast are a symbol. Brodie and his brothers raised a company of volunteers under a commission signed by George III whereby William was appointed Captain and “Our trusty and well- beloved Benjamin Collins Brodie, gent, Ensign in the company. He joined Abernethy’s school of anatomy; here he met William Lawrence, after- wards surgeon to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, Sir Benjamin Collins BRODIE with whom he formed a lifelong friendship. The 1783–1862 following year he attended the lectures of James Wilson at the Hunterian School of Anatomy in Benjamin Collins Brodie increased our knowl- Great Windmill Street and worked hard at edge of diseases of joints by his prolonged studies dissection. After spending nearly 2 years at of their clinical and pathological manifestations. George’s Hospital as He was born in 1783, the fourth of six children a pupil of Everard Home in 1803. Early the fol- of the Rector of Winterslow in Wiltshire, the lowing year his father died, leaving Mrs. Brodie Reverend Peter Bellinger Brodie, MA, who was in strained circumstances, dependent on a ﬁxed educated at Charterhouse and Worcester College, income in days of high prices, war taxation and Oxford, and of Sarah, daughter of Benjamin depreciation of paper currency; an economy Collins, banker and printer of Milford near strangely descriptive of England 150 years on. The Brodies derived from a clan of But with austere living, saving and some sacriﬁce 41 Who’s Who in Orthopedics of capital she just managed to keep up supplies to ﬁrst at 22 Sackville Street, but 3 years later moved her sons in mid-career. There were In May 1805, Brodie became house surgeon, a two sons and a daughter of the marriage; the elder post that he held for 6 months, when he resigned son became a Fellow of the Royal Society and on appointment as lecturer in anatomy at the Wayneﬂete Professor of Chemistry at Oxford, Windmill Street School. The he accepted a proposal from Everard Home to younger son became Vicar of East Meon. He lectured were of supreme importance to Brodie for, as he on the functions of the organs of respiration, remarked, “ These occupations afforded me the circulation and digestion, and on the nervous means of learning much as to my profession system. In practical surgery he was interested which cannot be learnt in a hospital; and further above everything else in diseases of joints, to by initiating me in the study of anatomy and which his attention was ﬁrst directed when as physiology generally, without limiting my views house surgeon he dissected a specimen consisting merely to that which is required for surgical of a pathological dislocation of the hip. The the help and guidance of Clift, the Conservator of pathology of joint disease had been neglected; the Museum, who in his youth had lived in John there was great need of investigation, particularly Hunter’s home and was trained by him. With this in mind he an intimate knowledge of every specimen and wrote: “I availed myself of every opportunity manuscript such as no one else had. In In 1808, Brodie was appointed assistant particular I was anxious to do this when the surgeon to St. George’s Hospital, being attached morbid changes were still in an early stage, and to Everard Home; owing to the absence of where I had the opportunity of noting the symp- Gunning, another surgeon, in the Peninsular War, toms by which the incipient disease was indi- Brodie and Robert Keate shared his duties.
In comparison with primary OA patients cheap venlor 75 mg free shipping, the study group had slightly inferior results generic venlor 75 mg online, explained by the difference in risk factors cheap venlor 75 mg mastercard. However generic venlor 75mg free shipping, improve- ments in the surgical technique suggest that these risk factors can be overcome because early failures pertained to the stage of development of the surgical technique. Speciﬁc training programs for resurfacing are needed to minimize the learning curve of surgeons newly undertaking this procedure. Historical Review The history of hip resurfacing has previously been described in the literature [1–3], and the recent success of the procedure came after a long evolution driven by the need to ﬁnd a viable conservative prosthetic solution for young and active patients with end-stage arthritis. The origin of hip resurfacing is commonly attributed to Smith-Petersen, who was followed by subsequent designs referred to as “double cups” in which the joint bearing was replaced by two adjacent congruent surfaces sliding against each other. The popularity of the concept led to the development of numerous designs worldwide [5–13]. The poor mid- and long-term performance of these early resurfacing designs nearly led to the demise of the concept itself when, in fact, technological factors such as the lack of adequate component ﬁxation and particularly the metal-on-polyethylene bearing materials were causing rapid failure rates [14,15]. However, the resurfacing concept was kept alive in a few centers because of the results of hemiresurfacing ﬁxed with acrylic, in which aseptic loosening of the device has not been observed in 25 years of experience in the senior author’s series [16,17]. This observation originated the idea that a low-wear metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing material was the likely key to the success of total resurfacing. The need to accommodate a femoral head of a large diameter led to the choice of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, which combined low wear and strength with a reduced thickness, for the acetabular component, so that the procedure became bone conserving for the acetabulum as well as for the femoral head and neck. Currently, only metallic devices can be manufactured with thin-walled one-piece cementless sockets and excellent wear properties, especially for large femoral heads [18,19], making MOM the bearing of choice for resurfacing. Introduction Hip resurfacing with MOM bearings is the fastest growing procedure in the world and is playing a major role in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), especially for young patients [20–24]. However, most of the results published to date relate to resurfacing in a population essentially composed of patients treated for idiopathic or “primary” OA. In Asia, primary OA is extremely rare [25,26], and hip arthroplasty essentially applies to degenerative changes secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), osteonecrosis (ON), posttrauma (PT), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), Legg–Calve–Perthes (LCP) disease, and inﬂammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, etc. The purpose of the present study was to review the indications and assess the clini- cal results of a current metal-on-metal hip resurfacing design in a population of patients treated for nonprimary OA. Materials and Methods From a series of more than 950 hips treated with metal-on-metal hybrid resurfacing (Conserve Plus; Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA), 208 patients (238 hips) underwent the procedure between November 1996 and June 2005 for a diagnosis other than primary OA. The degeneration of the articular cartilage was secondary to DDH in 82 hips (34. The surgical technique employed in this series has been described in detail in previous publica- tions [28–30], and the effects of the modiﬁcations made from the initial surgical technique have been evaluated. The patients were evaluated preoperatively, immediately after surgery, at 3 to 4 months, at 1 year, and then at yearly intervals. Radiographic data consisting of a low anteroposterior pelvis view, a modiﬁed table down-lateral, and a Johnson lateral view were collected at each visit. The radiographic analysis was similar to that reported in our previous publications. The clinical outcome of the surgeries was evaluated pre- and postoperatively using the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) hip scoring system and the Short-Form 12 questionnaire (SF-12). The Harris hip score was calculated postoperatively as an overall assessment of success comparable to other studies. The Surface Arthroplasty Risk Index (SARI) was calculated for each hip to evaluate the suitability of the group to be treated with a resurfacing procedure. A statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan–Maier survivorship curves and log-rank tests for comparison of survivorship data. Paired Student’s t tests were used for comparison of preoperative to postoperative clinical scores, and two-sample equal-variance t tests were used for comparisons of clinical scores with other groups of patients. Only one of these was associ- ated with clinical symptoms of loosening in a patient who was lost to follow-up. A narrowing of the femoral neck of 10% or more at the junction with the femoral component was observed in ten hips, but no deﬁnite association could be made with femoral component failure. Clinical scores of the study group (pre- and postoperative) and in comparison with patients operated for primary osteoarthritis (OA) Study group, P Study group, P Primary OA, preoperative postoperative postoperative UCLA hip scores Pain 3. Seven-year-postoperative radiograph of a 40 year-old woman who underwent metal- on-metal resurfacing for developmental dys- plasia of the hip (DDH). The region of interest highlights a radiolucency, which has been visible around the metaphyseal stem for more than 6 years, indicating imperfect initial ﬁxa- tion with ﬁrst-generation cementing technique (cyst size was 2cm).
Electron Homburg cheap venlor 75mg online, Prussia (now Germany) 75mg venlor otc, on August 20 discount venlor 75mg, 1915 generic 75mg venlor overnight delivery, after microscopy can also be used to visualize proteins, virus parti- a second stroke. The could not detect an image smaller than the wavelength of light Institute for Experimental Therapy changed its name to the used. This was tremendously frustrating for physicists, who Paul Ehrlich Institute and began offering the biennial Paul were anxious to study the structure of matter on an atomic Ehrlich Prize in one of Ehrlich’s fields of research as a memo- level. Ruska, then a student at the History of immunology; History of microbiology; University of Berlin, wondered why a microscope couldn’t be History of public health; History of the development of antibi- designed that was similar in function to a normal microscope otics; Infection and resistance but used a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light. Such a microscope could resolve images thousands of times smaller than the wavelength of visible light. In a compound microscope, a series of lenses are used to focus, magnify, and refocus the image. In order for an Described by the Nobel Society as “one of the most important electron-based instrument to perform as a microscope, some inventions of the century,” the electron is a valu- device was required to focus the electron beam. The first working models that electrons could be manipulated within a magnetic field, were constructed by German engineers and Max and in the late 1920s, he designed a magnetic coil that acted Knoll in 1932, and since that time, the electron microscope has as an electron lens. With this breakthrough, Ruska and Knoll found numerous applications in chemistry, engineering, medi- constructed their first electron microscope. See also in situ mold chitin fungi See also Escherichia coli Growth of virus creates clearing in lawn of growing. This lasts from causes a slightly different form of illness in its human hosts. Here, the patient may exhibit Hantaan virus is carried by the striped field mouse, and exists no symptoms. The patient virus often causes a severe form of hemorrhagic fever with begins with a fever, muscle aches, backache, and abdominal renal syndrome (HFRS). Puumula virus is carried by bank voles, and exists in The cardiopulmonary stage. Puumula virus stage rapidly, sometimes within a day or two of initial symp- causes a milder form of HFRS, usually termed nephropathia toms; sometimes as long as 10 days later. Seoul virus causes a form of HFRS which is so rapid and so severe as to put the patient in respiratory fail- slightly milder than that caused by Hantaan virus, but results ure within only a few hours. Prospect Hill virus is carried by meadow voles and The convalescent stage. If the patient survives the res- exists in the United States, but has not been found to cause piratory complications of the previous stage, there is a rapid human disease. Sin Nombre virus, the most predominant recovery, usually within a day or two. However, abnormal strain in the United States, is carried by the deer mouse. A similar, but geneti- cally distinct strain was responsible for an outbreak of HPS in logic techniques. This, along with additional epidemio- difficult to demonstrate the actual virus in human tissue or to logic evidence (such as the low rodent population density in grow cultures of the virus within the laboratory, so the major- the area affected) suggest that person-to-person transmission ity of diagnostic tests use indirect means to demonstrate the was possible during this outbreak, a feature unique to any presence of the virus. Treatment of hantavirus infections is primarily support- Black Creek Canal virus has been found in Florida. It is ive, because there are no agents available to kill the viruses predominantly carried by cotton rats. About 6–15% of people who contract virus appear to be deer mice and white-footed mice. Almost half of all people who contract HPS virus has been reported in Louisiana and Texas and is carried will die. It is essential that people living in areas where the by the marsh rice rat. Oklahoma and seems to be associated with the white-footed Preventative measures focus on vector control (elimination of mouse. Monongahela virus, discovered in 2000, has been found rodents), and avoiding rodent infested areas. Hantaviruses that produce forms of hemorrhagic fever Epidemics, viral; Epidemiology, tracking diseases with renal syndrome (HFRS) cause a classic group of symp- with technology; Epidemiology; Hemorrhagic fevers and dis- toms, including fever, malfunction of the kidneys, and low eases; Virology platelet count. Because platelets are blood cells important in proper clotting, low numbers of circulating platelets can result in spontaneous bleeding, or hemorrhage.
Henderson’s experience was in a way unique in that he planned and organized and developed a section of orthopedic surgery in a rapidly growing clinic devoted to group 135 Who’s Who in Orthopedics Irish Journal of Medical Science generic 75mg venlor fast delivery. In 1925 he became a professor of surgery at the University of Cairo venlor 75mg fast delivery, a position he held for 11 years buy cheap venlor 75 mg line. On his return to England order 75 mg venlor, Henry received additional dec- oration and an honorary degree from the govern- ment and the University of Egypt. During World War II, he was a teacher in the surgery department of the Postgraduate Medical School at Hammer- smith. In 1947, Henry returned to Dublin as a professor of anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland until his retirement in 1959. In addition to his valuable and unique book, Henry made many original contributions to the surgical literature describing new procedures and original observations. In his later years, Henry became a beloved academic ﬁgure in the surgical and medical worlds of Dublin. Arnold Kirkpatrick HENRY 1886–1962 One of the jewels of orthopedic literature is a slim book of solid gold. Every page contains a nugget of valuable information, concisely written in an entertaining style. Arnold Kirkpatrick Henry’s Extensile Expo- sure Applied to Limb Surgery, ﬁrst published in 1927, has guided several generations of limb surgeons, making their work easier and safer. To many, Henry is thought of only as an anatomist, but he also was a general surgeon of the old school who felt at home operating anywhere between the scalp and the sole. He then enrolled in Trinity College, Dublin, from which he received his MB, BCh, and dBAO degrees in 1911. After additional postgraduate training in Dublin, he Charles Harbison HERNDON became a Fellow of the Royal College of Sur- geons of Ireland in 1914. During World War I, 1915–1997 Henry became a surgeon of the Serbian army. His wife, who was also a surgeon, served as his ﬁrst Born in 1915 in Dublin, Texas, Charlie Herndon assistant. In 1916 they both ﬂed to Great Britain received his undergraduate education at the Uni- because the German army invaded Serbia. The versity of Texas and earned his MD degree from Serbian government decorated Henry with the Harvard University in 1940. After pleted his surgical internship at the University joining the Royal Army Medical Corps, Henry Hospitals of Cleveland, he entered the United was posted in India for a short period before being States Army in 1941 as a First Lieutenant and sent to the French army from 1917 to 1919. For volunteered to serve at the American Hospital in this service Henry was made a Chevalier of the Oxford, England, under the direction of Philip D. He subsequently served in the to practice in Dublin where he also edited the Third and Twenty-third Station Hospitals and in 136 Who’s Who in Orthopedics the Second General Hospital throughout the Charlie served on numerous committees in the entire European campaign; he was discharged orthopedic community and participated in a wide with the rank of Major in January 1946. He range of interdisciplinary activities, as exempli- began his orthopedic residency at the Hospital for ﬁed by his presidency of the Council of Medical Special Surgery, then a small red-brick building Specialists Society in 1976. On completion many services to the Case Western Reserve Uni- of his residency in 1947, he returned to the Uni- versity Medical School, an endowed Chair of versity Hospitals of Case Western Reserve Uni- Orthopedics was established in his name in 1979. He established the ence to know and to be educated by Charlie ﬁrst full-time division of orthopedic surgery at Herndon, as generations of his residents can that institution in 1953; the division became a full attest. In relatively few years, his stern manner inspired the best from others, but stewardship had made possible the development there was no better teacher by precept or example. His Charles Harbison Herndon, MD of Cleveland, clinical interests were broad, as were those of Ohio, one of the most respected and inﬂuential most of his generation before the development of orthopedists of his generation, died on July 27, multiple orthopedic subspecialties. He was survived by author or coauthor of 57 publications, and he con- his wife, Kathryn Ann Blair (Kay), whom he tinued to write on a wide range of topics, partic- married in 1944; and two sons. The many honors and ofﬁces that were received or held by Charlie Herndon during his long and distinguished career were richly deserved and are too numerous to list exhaus- tively. Charlie served as a trustee of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery from 1969 to 1974; as a member of the American Orthopedic Associa- tion in 1955; and as President of the Orthopedic Research Society in 1957, of the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery from 1964 to 1966, of the Association of Orthopedic Chairmen in 1975, and of the American Academy of Orthopedic Sur- geons from 1967 to 1968.