By W. Yokian. Westwood College ó Georgia.
Cults offer the allure of an ordered assert that there is no evidence for bias across race or so- world that is easily understood generic antabuse 250 mg. Clear rules of behavior cial class in ‚Äústandardized‚ÄĚ intelligence and achievement are enforced and nagging questions about meaning and tests purchase 250 mg antabuse mastercard. However discount antabuse 250 mg overnight delivery, children whose primary language is not purpose are dispelled by the leader order 500mg antabuse with mastercard, who defines mem- English should be tested in their primary language. It is probably most useful to examine the phenomenon of cults without Further Reading dwelling on the sensationalistic practices of the flamboy- Barnouw, Victor. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology: Con- examines a cult and its dynamics, what is actually ob- tinuity and Change in the Study of Human Action. To understand this process, consider that many so- Cross-sectional study cial organizations other than what we traditionally think of as cults require strict adherence to a set of beliefs and, Research that collects data simultaneously from people of different ages, in contrast to a longitudi- in turn, provide a sense of meaning and purpose to their nal study, which follows one group of subjects over followers. The rigid social contract of the A cross-sectional study is a research method where military, for instance, is considered by many psycholo- data are collected at the same time from people in differ- gists as being cult-like. It contrasts with the method, known have had a profound impact on the lives of its followers as longitudinal study, where the same group of subjects include self-help groups, such as Alcoholics Anony- is studied over time. One weakness, or confounding vari- mous, where selflessness and devotion to the group are able, of the cross-sectional study is that its subjects, in highly valued and rewarded. Certain types of political addition to being different ages, are also born in different groups and terrorist organizations are still other exam- years, and their behavior may thus be influenced by dif- ples of ‚Äúcults‚ÄĚ that defy the common definition of the ferences in education, cultural influences, and medical term. In the longitudinal study, data can be obtained try at the University of California at San Francisco, is from subjects of different ages born within the same pe- one of many psychologists who has observed cultic be- riod of time. However, a confounding variable in longi- havior in many areas of society other than in extremist tudinal studies is the degree to which each person‚Äôs envi- religious groups. In the introduction to his 1990 book, ronmental influences will vary from those of others over The Wrong Way Home: Uncovering the Patterns of Cult the period of time covered by the experiment. Behavior in American Society, Deikman asserted that ‚Äúbehavior similar to that which takes place in extreme cults takes place in all of us,‚ÄĚ and suggested that ‚Äúthe longing for parents persists into adulthood and results in cult behavior that pervades normal society. Marc Galanter, professor of psychiatry at New York University, defines the charac- A cult is a structured group, most of whose mem- teristics of charismatic groups in his study Cults: Faith, bers demonstrate unquestioned loyalty to a dynamic Healing, and Coercion (1989). Often, family members 4) impute charismatic (or sometimes divine) power to of persons in religious cults hire what are called ‚Äúdepro- the group or its leadership. Still Most psychologists would probably acknowledge other experts, drawing on the field of sociobiology, sug- that there exists a deep human need to belong to a group. Whatever the origins of the psychological need to be Followers of American-born cult leader Jim Jones a part of a defined group, the fact is most people do not left the U. Usually, man and three journalists investigating the cult were such a young person is approached by friendly, outgoing killed, Jones persuaded 911 members of his People‚Äôs recruiters for the cult who express a deep interest in the Temple flock to kill themselves with cyanide-laced po- person‚Äôs life and offer empathy and understanding for tions in a mass suicide on Nov. These difficul- leader of the Branch Davidians, a group that originally ties may be in relation to a failed romance, an unhappy split from the Seventh Day Adventist Church during the family life, or an existential crisis of the sort usually as- Depression, led 82 people to their death, when he re- sociated with late adolescence in which a young person fused to be served with a search and arrest warrant at the has no idea how they fit in the world. Koresh‚Äôs followers often trained to provide a ‚Äúfriendly ear‚ÄĚ to troubled believed he was the Messiah, despite reports of child young people, to validate their experiences as being abuse and other questionable behaviors. After an initial common, and, finally, to suggest that other people (such gunfight that killed four agents and six Davidians, a 51- as themselves) have found solace in their groups. When agents ence severe psychological disorders as they at once launched a tear gas attack on April 19, 1993, to end the begin and resist immersion into an entirely new system. Some Bodies of 39 similarly dressed men and women psychologists believe that such mental illnesses as disso- were found in San Diego on March 26, 1997, after a ciative identity disorders, pathologic adjustment reac- mass suicide led by Marshall Applewhite, cult leader of tions, major depressive disorders, and others may be at- Heaven‚Äôs Gate. The deaths were triggered by the cult‚Äôs tributed to the agonizing process of joining a charismatic belief that a flying saucer traveled behind comet Hale- group. Once immersed in the cult, members will often Bopp to take them home, an evolutionary existence cut all ties with their past lives, ending contact with their above the human level. Articles have appeared about the families and friends as they join a new social order that use of the Internet to recruit Heaven‚Äôs Gate followers.
The patient then confronts her fears in a systematic manner purchase 250 mg antabuse fast delivery, sometimes using her imagination but usually purchase 250mg antabuse with amex, when possible order antabuse 500 mg with visa, in real life cheap 500mg antabuse free shipping. The continued pairing of the relaxation responses with the feared stimulus as the patient works up the hierarchy gradually leads the fear response to be extinguished and the relaxation response to take its place. Fears of spiders are more directly habituated when the patient interacts with a real spider, and fears of flying are best extinguished when the patient gets on a real plane. But it is often difficult and expensive to create these experiences for the patient. Specially designed computer equipment, often with a head-mount display, is used to create a simulated environment. Some of the advantages of the virtual reality treatment approach are that it is economical, the treatment session can be held in the therapist‚Äės office with no loss of time or confidentiality, the session can easily be terminated as soon as a patient feels uncomfortable, and many patients who have resisted live exposure to the object of their fears are willing to try the new virtual reality option first. Aversion therapy is a type of behavior therapy in which positive punishment is used to reduce the frequency of an undesirable behavior. An unpleasant stimulus is intentionally paired with a harmful or socially unacceptable behavior until the behavior becomes associated with unpleasant sensations and is hopefully reduced. A child who wets his bed may be required to sleep on a pad that sounds an alarm when it senses moisture. Over time, the positive punishment produced by  the alarm reduces the bedwetting behavior (Houts, Berman, & Abramson, 1994). Aversion  therapy is also used to stop other specific behaviors such as nail biting (Allen, 1996). In a standard approach, patients are treated at a hospital where they are administered a drug, antabuse, that makes them nauseous if they consume any alcohol. The technique works  very well if the user keeps taking the drug (Krampe et al. In cognitive therapy the therapist helps the patient develop new, healthier ways of thinking about themselves and about the others around them. The goal of cognitive therapy is not necessarily to get people to think more positively but rather to think more accurately. For instance, a person who thinks ‚Äúno one cares about me‚ÄĖ is likely to feel rejected, isolated, and lonely. If the therapist can remind the person that she has a mother or daughter who does care about her, more positive feelings will likely follow. Similarly, changing beliefs from ‚ÄúI have to be perfect‚ÄĖ to ‚ÄúNo one is always perfect‚ÄĒI‚Äėm doing pretty good,‚ÄĖ from ‚ÄúI am a terrible student‚ÄĖ to ‚ÄúI am doing well in some of my courses,‚ÄĖ or from ‚ÄúShe did that on purpose to hurt me‚ÄĖ to ‚ÄúMaybe she didn‚Äėt realize how important it was to me‚ÄĖ may all be helpful. Beck and the psychologist Albert Ellis (1913‚Äď2007) together provided  the basic principles of cognitive therapy. Ellis noticed that people experiencing strong negative emotions tend to personalize and overgeneralize their beliefs, leading to an inability to see situations  accurately (Leahy, 2003). His goal was to develop a short-term therapy for depression that would modify these unproductive thoughts. Beck‚Äės approach challenges the client to test his beliefs against concrete evidence. If a client claims that ‚Äúeverybody at work is out to get me,‚ÄĖ the therapist might ask him to provide instances to corroborate the claim. At the same time the therapist might point out contrary evidence, such as the fact that a certain coworker is actually a loyal friend or that the patient‚Äės boss had recently praised him. For bipolar disorder, for instance, the therapist may use both psychological skills training to help the patient cope with the severe highs and lows, but may also suggest that the patient consider biomedical drug therapies (Newman, Leahy, Beck, Reilly-Harrington, & Gyulai,  2002). Consider this description, typical of the type of borderline patient who arrives at a therapist‚Äės office: Even as an infant, it seemed that there was something different about Bethany. She had very severe separation anxiety‚ÄĒif her mother left the room, Bethany would scream until she returned. She started acting out more and more‚ÄĒyelling at her parents and teachers and engaging in impulsive behavior such as promiscuity and running away from home. At times Bethany would have a close friend at school, but some conflict always developed and the friendship would end. She was fighting with her parents almost daily, and the fights often included violent behavior on Bethany‚Äôs part.
Home remedies may also ‚Äúvital forces‚ÄĚ to elicit relief of those symptoms purchase antabuse 500 mg overnight delivery, be based on ethnic traditions and beliefs generic 250 mg antabuse amex. In New Orleans cheap antabuse 500 mg without prescription, homeopaths treated 1945 amarga 500 mg antabuse with visa, and prickly ash bark‚ÄĒin a potassium victims of the 1879 yellow fever epidemic, with a iodide solution, plus a regimen of nutrition, supple- 5. According to interventions and disciplines, homeopathic treat- reports, the cancer medicines were handed down to ments are ‚Äúof tremendous value in reversing dis- the Illinois-born Hoxsey from his great-grandfather. When all the humors were balanced, an indi- banned the sale of all Hoxsey tonics, and all vidual maintained health, and the body needed to Hoxsey‚Äôs alleged requests for scientiÔ¨Āc investigation expel any excesses in order to keep the humors in of his formulas went unanswered. Hydrotherapy, largely based on the use of reopened as the Bio-Medical Center in Tijuana, water internally and externally, along with a diet Mexico, under the auspices of Hoxsey‚Äôs longtime and exercise regimen, became popular in the 19th clinical nurse, Mildred Nelson, R. Yellow bile was considered warm external use (the topical version was a paste that and dry; black bile was thought of as cold and dry. If the level of one of these humors cer remedy among Lake Superior Native Ameri- became excessive or deÔ¨Ācient, illness occurred in cans). Since laboratory studies of its effectiveness three stages: Ô¨Ārst, the humoral change; second, were conducted, the Hoxsey formula has been fever or what was called ‚Äúboiling‚ÄĚ; third, the dis- reported to reduce tumors, inhibit tumor growth, charge of one of the humors in the form of urine, and provide antioxidant and antiestrogen activities feces, phlegm, bleeding, sweating, vomiting, and so that are known to have a deleterious effect on can- on. It has also been shown that laughter have responded particularly favorably to the stimulates the body‚Äôs natural production of endor- Hoxsey therapy. Hoxsey believed that his herbal phins, chemicals almost identical to the painkiller preparations balanced the chemical process in the morphine. In mind-body medicine, laughter, opti- body; his idea was that cancer is a systemic disease mism, and other qualities associated with pleasure that ‚Äúoccurs only in the presence of a profound are believed to have a positive impact in the treat- physiological change in the constituents of body ment of disease. Box 727, 615 General Hydrotheraphy and hydrothermal therapy are Ferreira, Colonia Juarez, Tijuana, B. Hydrothermal therapy involves varying tempera- ture of the water according to need, as in hot baths, humectant A substance used as a moisturizer. Therapeutic water treat- ments have been known and used for centuries as humors, the four The ancient theory that human an all-purpose therapy based on the ancient con- temperament and propensity for disease are based cept of the four bodily humors and the need to hydrotherapy 59 diminish or expel excessive humors such as bath to a still bath because whirlpools had a more phlegm and bile. Water is also a signiÔ¨Ācant compo- direct impact on the ravages of stress and anxiety nent in the traditional Chinese and Native Ameri- than a still bath. A major proponent of A number of hydrotherapy techniques are avail- hydrotherapy was Vincenz Priessnitz (1799‚Äď1851), able: baths and showers, neutral baths, sitz baths, whose system of administering water therapeuti- contrast sitz baths, foot baths, cold-mitten friction cally in numerous ways along with an appropriate rub, steam inhalation, hot compresses, cold com- nutrition and exercise regimen sparked the estab- presses, alternating hot and cold compresses, heat- lishment of hydropathic institutions in the United ing compresses, body wrap, wet sheet pack, and States and Europe. After douching, dry off excess France, have been a destination for thousands of water, dress, and exercise. This may apy stimulates the body‚Äôs reaction to hot and cold, help treat headache, migraine, hypotension, to the protracted application of heat, to pressure insomnia, contusions, and varicose veins and other exerted by the water, and to the sensation of the vascular injury. The nerves of the skin tract infections, irritable bladder, sciatica, or during carry impulses into the body, where they can menstruation. Generally heat soothes treat rheumatism, varicose veins, arthritis, and cer- and relaxes the body, slowing the activity of inter- tain forms of paralysis. For example, muscle tension and but including the lower torso, is used to help treat stress anxiety may warrant a hot bath or shower. Baths, the liver, enlargement of the gallbladder, and stone pools, hot tubs, or any body of water in which one formation. Hydrotherapy and hydrothermal cold hands, nervous disorders, neuralgia and paral- therapy are chieÔ¨āy used to tone up the body; to ysis, rheumatism of the arms, heart problems, ver- stimulate digestion, blood Ô¨āow, and the immune tigo, headaches, and catarrh in the nose and throat. This is useful for chronic bronchitis and hydrotherapy quiets the lungs, heart, stomach, and bronchial asthma, and angina pectoris. Caution: endocrine system by stimulating nerve reÔ¨āexes on Moderate the temperature if there is risk of the spinal cord. It is useful for person study at the University of Minnesota, 85 the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, dis- percent of the participants preferred a whirlpool ease of the larynx and vocal cords, headaches, ner- 60 hydrotherapy vous excitability, varicose veins of the legs, toning, Baths may be warm and rising-temperature and stimulating cardiac and respiratory activity. Do baths or may employ herbs and other substances not use if there is blood stasis in the pulmonary cir- added to the water. Hot water is then gradually added until the disease, multiple sclerosis, bronchial asthma, and level reaches the navel. This form of bath Neck douches help alleviate headaches, migraines, should last 15 to 30 minutes, not more than three tension in the shoulder and neck, hypersensitivity times per week, and is not recommended for indi- to changes in the weather, mild depression, tinni- viduals who have cardiac or circulation disorders, tus, vertigo, and arthrosis of the hand and Ô¨Ānger hemorrhoids, or varicose veins.